2009年1月25日 星期日

浮生一看──南宋李生「瀟湘臥遊圖」及其歷代題跋


「瀟湘臥遊圖」現藏於日本東京國立博物館,是南宋一位名字不詳的李姓畫家為雲谷圓照禪師所繪。

本文將「瀟湘臥遊圖」納入「瀟湘」山水文化的脈絡中考察,探討原本文人氣息濃厚的題材,如何受到禪僧的欣賞與認同。

今本「瀟湘臥遊圖」上,存有自南宋孝宗乾道六年(1170)以來,以至於1924年的十六則題跋,其中九則南宋文人的題跋深富禪宗思想,本文從宗教思維的角度加以一一解讀。

本文並分析了明清人如董其昌、清高宗乾隆的題跋中所透露的品鑑立場和物質慾望,與南宋人「以禪觀畫」的態度作一對照。「瀟湘臥遊圖」曾經在1923年的日本關東大地震中劫後餘生,日本學者內藤湖南的題跋為「瀟湘臥遊圖」做了歷史的總結。

《漢學研究》23卷2期(2005年12月),頁99-132。


An Analysis of Colophons in the Dream Journey Over Xiao Xiang(Xiao Xiang woyou tu)


Dream Journey Over Xiao Xiang (Xiao Xiang woyou tu), which is in the collection of the Tokyo National Museum, was painted by a painter surnamed Li (Master Li) for a Chan monk Yungu Yuan Zhao in about 1170.

In literature and art, the Xiaoxiang landscape culture was created by the literati, based on the Eight Views of Xiaoxiang, which came to symbolize exile and hermitage. The Xiaoxiang tradition also was very significant in Chan Buddhism since the Tang dynasty ci poetry on the theme of the fisherman was important in the spread of Chan. Thus the Xiaoxiang theme would have been meaningful for Yungu Yuan Zhao; and since he had never been to Xiaoxiang, he asked Master Li convey the evocative scenery by a painting, later inviting numerous literati to appreciate the work.

Dream Journey Over Xiao Xiang has about 16 colophons, added from 1170 to 1924. This paper analyzes these colophons, especially focusing on the nine written by literati from 1170 to 1171. These colophons, composed especially for Yungu Yuan Zhao, embody Chan thought; and based on them, this paper discusses the relationship between Chan thought and painting.

In addition to these nine, the colophons of Dong Qichang (1555-1636) and the Qianlong emperor (1711-1799) also showed their appreciation and pride in owning this painting. The work was saved from the fire after Tokyo’s 1923 earthquake, and the final colophon, by Naito Konan (1866-1934), relates the overall story of Dream Journey Over Xiao Xiang.

Chinese Studies, Vol.23 No.2 (Dec. 2005), pp.99-132.

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