2009年1月25日 星期日

玉澗「瀟湘八景圖」東渡日本之前──「三教弟子」印考




玉澗「瀟湘八景圖」之「洞庭秋月」(局部)





宋末元初畫僧玉澗所繪的「瀟湘八景圖」,大約在十四世紀末至十五世紀初流傳到日本。


在玉澗的「瀟湘八景圖」上,各幅均鈐有「三教弟子」朱文方印,其中「瀟湘八景」之「洞庭秋月圖」上除了「三教弟子」印章之外,還有一枚「北山文房之印」,兩枚印章的歸屬一直未有定論。


筆者者發現在比玉澗的時代稍晚的書法家鮮于樞(1246-1302)的作品上,鈐蓋了字體和大小與玉澗「瀟湘八景圖」中一模一樣的「三教弟子」印,從而探討鮮于樞自稱「三教弟子」的原因。


經由研究南宋至元代,環繞於浙江杭州與金華,以鑑賞書畫為共同雅好的文人文化圈,推想「北山文房之印」的主人,或許是與鮮于樞往來密切的郭天錫(約1227-1302)。


自從現身於日本將近六百年來,玉澗「瀟湘八景圖」東渡之前的一段收藏經歷,在本文中得到了初歩的解析。




《台灣大學美術史研究集刊》第24期(2008年3月),頁147-174。




Yu Jian’s Painting Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang Prior to Being Brought to Japan: A Study of the “Sanjiao Dizi” Seal

The late Song early Yuan Dynasty Buddhist monk painter Yu Jian’s(玉澗) painting Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang made its way to Japan during the late 14th and early 15th centuries.


The vermillion inked square seal which reads “Sanjiao Dizi”(三教弟子, Three Religions Disciple) can be found on each of Yu Jian’s Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang. Among the Eight Views, the painting Fall Moon on Dongting Lake, not only has a “Sanjiao Dizi” seal, but also a seal which reads “Beishan Wenfang Zhi Yin”(北山文房之印, Northern Mountain Library Seal) .


In this investigation of the “Sanjiao Dizi”, when comparing the Eight Views paintings with the works of Yu Jian’s slightly later contemporary, Xianyu Shu (鮮于樞,1246-1302), it is found that the seal’s lettering and size is exactly the same as that of the “Sanjiao Dizi” seal on Yu Jian’s Eight Views. Thus, these similarities are the reason for a further examination of Xianyu Shu’s self-named “Sanjiao Dizi” (Three Religions Disciple).


Researching the Southern Song/Yuan Dynasty period, in the area encompassing Zhejiang, Hangzhou and Jinhua and using artistic literary appraisals common to learned scholars in local literary circles, one can deduce that the “Beishan Wenfang Zhi Yin” owner may be Xianyu Shu’s close acquaintance Guo Tianxi (郭天錫,about 1227 – 1302).


This paper takes a first step toward analyzing the experiences of Yu Jian’s Eight Views of Xiao Xiang painting in Chinese collections before the work’s sea voyage east to Japan 600 years ago.




Taida Journal of Art History, Taiwan University No.24(March, 2008), pp. 147-174.


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