Time, Material and Memories: The Cultural Scape of “Shou Su Hui” (Gathering for Su Shih’s
Birthday Remembrance) in Qing Dynasty
“Shou Su Hui”, a meaningful gathering for
the remembrance of Su-shi’s birth, is likely to begin with Song Luo (1634-1713)
from the Qing dynasty. Song Luo bought over fragmentary edition of Song dynasty
“Su Dongpo’s Poem annotated by Shi Yuan Zhi and Gu Xi”, then ordered Shao
Changheng (1637-1704), Gu Sili (1669-1722) et al. to make amendments and
eventually had it named “Shi Zhu Su Shi”(Shi’s Annotation of Su Dongpo’s
Poem). During Kang Xi years (1700), amendments were complete. On the nineteen
of the twelfth lunar month, Su-shi’s birthday, Song Luo led the mass for a
worshipping ceremony in Su Zhou. The ceremony had Su-shi’s favourite dishes as
offerings, Su-shi’s portraits on display, and participants writing responsary
literary works, marking the style and scale foundation of later “Shou Su Hui”.
During Qian Long years, Weng Fang-gang got hold of Song Luo’s old copy
of Song Qian’s “Su Dongpo’s Poem annotated by Shi Yuan Zhi and Gu Xi”, hence
organized “Shou Su Hui” on Su-shi’s
birthday at Beijing, and hosted at least 20times of this event in his lifetime.
Not much later than Weng Fang-gang, Bi Yuan started and held “Shou Su Hui” for several times with his
people in Xi An, and published the participants literary works into a book.
Since then, “Shou Su Hui” became an
important year-end event to fight the cold and gather the literati.
makes “Shou Su Hui” differs from the
usual literati gatherings with poems and wine, is that it has a specific goal
and objective. Furthermore, it is a part of Su-shi’s research history and also
displays the literary style of an era. Thus, we could say that “Shou Su Hui” in mid Qing dynasty collaborated
the creation of arts and the study historical relics, presenting to us a
cultural scape of “Long-lasting time”, “Revealing matterial” and “Inheriting
Division of Chinese, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
“The Eight Views of
Beijing”, a painting in the name of Ming dynasty artist Wang Fu(1362-1416), has
been kept in Qian Qing Gong, and recorded under the “Shiqu baoji xubian”(published
in 1793)preserved in the National Museum of
China. It is the earliest existing painting that was discovered, which drew
about the eight views of Beijing.
“The EightViews of Beijing”
are “Jintai Xi Zhao”(Sunset
on the Golden Tower), “Taiye Qing Bo” (CrystalClearWavesat Taiye Pond), “Qion-dao Chun Yun”(Spring
Clouds at Qionghua Island), “Yuquan Chui Hong”(Cascading Rainbow at Jade Stream
Die Cui”(Layered Shades of Green at Juyong Pass) , “Ji-men Yan Shu”(Misty
Trees at Jimen), “Lu-gou
Xiao Yue”(Dawn Moonlight at Lugou Bridge) “Xishan Ji Xue”(Clearing
Snow on West Mountain) in accordance. A preface written
by Hu Guang (1370-1418) of Ming dynasty Yongle 12th year (1414), mentioned of a
total 112 poems specially written for the painting itself by 13 officials, but
not all were to be found. Among those that were missing, includes the one
written by Wang Fu, the artist himself.
This paper attempts to re-explore this
preface of “The Eight Views of Beijing”, from the wood-craving print ancient
books of the Korea Joseon era. The “Poem Anthology of The Eight Views of
Beijing” or “The Poems of ‘The Eight Views of Beijing’ Painting”, kept in the
National Library of Korea, Seoul University of Korea Kyujanggak and Academy of
East Asian Studies in Sungkyunkwan University, which has the most completed
record of poems found in the preface, is a rare reference abroad nations.
According to Zeng Qi’s (1372-1432) “After the writing of ‘The Eight Sights of
Beijing’ poems”, the rare referencing book was published in 1413 by Zhang
governor of Jianyang. A post scriptum by Korean
Ren Cong-shan, the governor of Gyeongju, then reflected
that it was re-printed in 1449, a recorded timing earlier than that of in “Ming
yi tong zhi” (published in 1461).
Research had also discovered that, the poems
written by the 13 officials of Yongle imperial court, were not poems especially for the painting “The Eight Views of
Beijing”, but a series of creation to Zou Ji’s (?-1422) suggested eight views of Beijing. The actual eight views of Beijing from the painting, uses the content of Wang Fu’s
poem as a reference, and hence do not correspond to the eight views listed by Yang Rong (1371-1440). This preface recorded the
artist to Wang Fu, and was originated from the collection of the pair of
father-and-son Han Shi-neng(1528-1598), Han Feng-xi (1578-1653), and Zhuang
Jiong-sheng (1627-1679), Zhuang Hu-sun, then collected in the Qing Palace after.