2011年11月9日 星期三

無邊剎境入毫端──玉澗及其「瀟湘八景」詩畫

《東華漢學》第13期(2011年6月),頁79-114。

宋末元初畫僧玉澗所繪的「瀟湘八景圖」,大約在十四世紀末至十五世紀初流傳到日本。原作本共八幅,目前僅存「洞庭秋月圖」軸(東京/文化廳藏)、「山市晴巒圖」軸(東京/出光美術館藏),以及「遠浦歸帆圖」軸(名古屋/德川美術館藏)。
十三世紀後半,玉澗活動於故鄉婺州金華(今浙江省金華),本文從與玉澗交往的文人詩歌中穿插徵引,推算出玉澗大約生於1180-1190年代,卒於1260-1270年代。
「瀟湘八景圖」在北宋末年由文人畫家宋迪(約1015-1080)創製,本為文人旨趣的畫題。禪宗本有「漁唱瀟湘,猿啼嶽麓」的「瀟湘」意象傳統,益加促進「瀟湘八景圖」的禪意化。在「瀟湘八景圖」的禪意化脈絡中,玉澗介於南宋李生「瀟湘臥遊圖」(東京國立博物館藏)與牧谿的作品之間。
玉澗的畫作在美術史學界已有豐富的研究成果,但是「瀟湘八景圖」的題詩則罕見論述。本文分析八首「瀟湘八景圖」的題畫詩,並配合存世的三幅作品,探究玉澗的詩歌、書法和繪畫的審美真諦。
研究指出:玉澗的「瀟湘八景圖」題畫詩以七言絕句的形式,有如禪家的頌偈,敘事兼蓄抒情。不同於一般七言絕句的寫作習慣,玉澗的題畫詩沒有起、承、轉、合的規律,而是呈現未收束、未總結、行進中、變化中的動態感。詩歌宛若訴說修道之不易,嚮往「歸家穩坐」之解脫。

關鍵詞:玉澗,若芬,瀟湘八景圖,禪宗,題畫詩

Yu Jian and his Poetry and Painting in Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang



Abstract

Around the end of the fourteenth century to the beginning of the fifteenth century, the drawing of “Eight Views of Xiao Xiang” by a monk Yu Jian has circulated to Japan. The original art work consists of eight pieces, now it is only left with “Autumn Moon over Dongting” (Tokyo/Agency for Cultural Affairs), “Mountain Market, Clearing Mist” (Tokyo/Idemitsu Museum of Arts) and “Sails Returning from a Distant Shore” (Nagoya/The Tokugawa Art Museum).
During the late thirteenth century, Yu Jian was quite active back in his hometown Jin Hua. From the poems that Yu Jian exchanged with other scholars, we can estimate that Yu Jian was born in the period between1180-1190 and passed away in the period between 1260-1270.
“Eight Views of Xiao Xiang” is created by artist Song Di (about 1015-1080) in the late Northern Song dynasty and this art work has been of great interest to the researchers. “Xiao Xiang” is a traditional image in the Chan, and in the trend of making “Eight Views of Xiao Xiang” in the Chan context, Yu Jian’s work is between the “Dream Journey Over Xiao Xiang” (Tokyo/National Museum) by Master Li in the Southern Song and the works of Mu Xi.
In the field of Art history, many scholars have studied Yu Jian’s paintings and have had a fruitful research. However, discussions on the poems written on the painting “Eight Views of Xiao Xiang” are rare. This paper will analyze the eight poems written on the “Eight Views of Xiao Xiang”, also using the three pieces of work that are left, we will discuss the aesthetic essence of Yu Jian in his poems, calligraphy and paintings.
Research has shown that: The poems written in the Yu Jian’s “Eight Views of Xiao Xiang” is in the form of seven quatrains, and it combined both narrative and vivid expression of emotions, just like the Chan Ji. However, the poems written by Yu Jian do not follow the normal structure, with an introduction, a climax and an ending. His poems do not have a conclusion and are always in a continuous and changing state. It seems like the poems are saying that it is not easy to practice Buddhism, and there is an inclination towards achieving secular relief.

Keywords:
Yu Jian, Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang painting, Chan, Poems on Paintings


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