2016年11月10日 星期四

玉堂天上:清宮舊藏明代「北京八景圖」新探



玉堂天上:清宮舊藏明代「北京八景圖」新探
(下載全文)

《故宮學刊》第16(北京:故宮出版社,20167),頁283-296

題名為明代畫家王紱(1362-1416)所繪之「北京八景圖」舊藏乾清宮,著錄於《石渠寶笈續編》(書成於1793)藏中國國家博物館,是現存最早描繪「北京八景」的畫作。「北京八景圖」依序畫「金臺夕照」、「太液晴波」、「瓊島春雲」、「玉泉垂虹」、「居庸疊翠」、「薊門煙樹」、「盧溝曉月」和「西山霽雪」八景。卷前引首有胡廣(1370-1418)永樂十二年(1414)十一月所作序文,序文提及「北京八景圖」有十三位文臣作詩112首,然今圖存詩不全,且缺畫家王紱題詩。
本文嘗試從韓國朝鮮時代木板覆刻古籍,重新探討此卷「北京八景圖」。韓國國立中央圖書館、首爾大學奎章閣、成均館大學尊經閣所藏,書名為《北京八景詩集》或《北京八景圖詩》,為海內外罕見,最為齊全的清宮舊藏「北京八景圖」相關詩文。根據曾棨(1372-1432)〈書北京八景詩後〉,此書為建陽令張光啟於1431年刊行。書後慶州府尹任從善跋文顯示,此書於1449年覆刻,時代早於收錄部分「北京八景圖」詩的《明一統志》(書成於1461)
研究發現:十三位永樂館臣詩篇乃扈從明成祖赴北京,為製造及附和鄒緝(?-1422)提議的「北京八景」而作,並非為「北京八景圖」寫的題畫詩。「北京八景圖」依照的是王紱的詩內容,與楊榮(1371-1440)解說的「北京八景」各景特色不盡相符。此卷經韓世能(1528-1598)、韓逢禧(1578-1653)父子、莊冏生(1627-1679)、莊虎孫父子等人收藏後入清宮,著錄為王紱所畫。



(download)

I, Lo-fen
Division of Chinese, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

  “The Eight Views of Beijing”, a painting in the name of Ming dynasty artist Wang Fu(1362-1416), has been kept in Qian Qing Gong, and recorded under the “Shiqu baoji xubian(published in 1793)preserved in the National Museum of China. It is the earliest existing painting that was discovered, which drew about the eight views of Beijing. “The EightViews of Beijing” are “Jintai Xi Zhao(Sunset on the Golden Tower), “Taiye Qing Bo” (Crystal Clear Waves at Taiye Pond), “Qion-dao Chun Yun(Spring Clouds at Qionghua Island), “Yuquan Chui Hong(Cascading Rainbow at Jade Stream Mountain), “Juyong Die Cui(Layered Shades of Green at Juyong Pass) , “Ji-men Yan Shu(Misty Trees at Jimen), “Lu-gou Xiao Yue(Dawn Moonlight at Lugou Bridge)Xishan Ji Xue(Clearing Snow on West Mountain) in accordance. A preface written by Hu Guang (1370-1418) of Ming dynasty Yongle 12th year (1414), mentioned of a total 112 poems specially written for the painting itself by 13 officials, but not all were to be found. Among those that were missing, includes the one written by Wang Fu, the artist himself.
This paper attempts to re-explore this preface of “The Eight Views of Beijing”, from the wood-craving print ancient books of the Korea Joseon era. The “Poem Anthology of The Eight Views of Beijing” or “The Poems of ‘The Eight Views of Beijing’ Painting”, kept in the National Library of Korea, Seoul University of Korea Kyujanggak and Academy of East Asian Studies in Sungkyunkwan University, which has the most completed record of poems found in the preface, is a rare reference abroad nations. According to Zeng Qi’s (1372-1432) “After the writing of ‘The Eight Sights of Beijing’ poems”, the rare referencing book was published in 1413 by Zhang Guang-Qi, the governor of Jianyang. A post scriptum by Korean Ren Cong-shan, the governor of Gyeongju, then reflected that it was re-printed in 1449, a recorded timing earlier than that of in  “Ming yi tong zhi” (published in 1461).         

 Research had also discovered that, the poems written by the 13 officials of Yongle imperial court, were not poems especially for the painting “The Eight Views of Beijing”, but a series of creation to Zou Ji’s (?-1422) suggested eight views of Beijing. The actual eight views of Beijing from the painting, uses the content of Wang Fu’s poem as a reference, and hence do not correspond to the eight views listed by Yang Rong (1371-1440). This preface recorded the artist to Wang Fu, and was originated from the collection of the pair of father-and-son Han Shi-neng(1528-1598), Han Feng-xi (1578-1653), and Zhuang Jiong-sheng (1627-1679), Zhuang Hu-sun, then collected in the Qing Palace after. 



沒有留言: