2011年5月16日 星期一

明代中韓「孝女」唱和詩的文化意涵









1449年末至1450年初,倪謙(1415-1479)為頒布景帝即位詔書奉命前往朝鮮,沿途寫作紀行詩,到達朝鮮後,公務之餘,與朝鮮儒臣唱和詩賦,開啟了兩國重視文士為外交官的範例。
倪謙之後,明朝和朝鮮都視詩賦才能為使臣的要件,朝鮮並將1450年至1633年間明使與國臣的酬唱之作編成《皇華集》二十四卷。
本文探討中韓兩國文官歌詠朝鮮孝女金四月的詩篇,這些作品反覆運用孝親的典故,針對同一主題的集體書寫,實踐了先秦以來賦詩外交的傳統,共同營造偏離金四月事蹟的孝親意象。此意象將區域性的孝女行為擴大成使臣觀察民風的文化景觀,推衍至明朝恩澤降布於朝鮮的德教政績。

石守謙、廖肇亨主編:《東亞文化意象之形塑》(台北:允晨文化實業股份有限公司,2011年1月),頁507-537。


The"Filial Daughter" in Poems of Chinese and Korean from 15th to 17th Century


From the end of 1449 to the beginning of 1450, Ni Qian (1415-1479) as an ambassador, was ordered by Emperor Jing to bring the throne edict to Korea (Chosun). Along the journey, Ni Qian wrote many poems indicated the scenes. When he finally arrived in Chosun, besides reporting his work, he had joined the Confucian officials in creating poems as well. This example shows that both countries were placing much emphasis on scholars to be chosen as diplomats.
After Ni Qian, both the Ming and Chosun Dynasty highly valued the ability to write the exchange of poems by matching rhyming, and set it as main criteria to elect diplomats. The Chosun Dynasty has compiled the exchanged poems into a 24 volumes “Huang Hua Ji” from 1450 to 1633.
This paper aims to discuss the poems “Filial Daughter – Jin Si Yue(Kim Sa Wal)” and its influences in China and Korea. Both countries used an allusion of “Filial” to create a collective style of writing. Having the practice of exchanging poetry for diplomatic reasons is a tradition that started from pre-Qin dynasty; it creates a deviation of the real images of the “Jin Si Yue” incident. Nevertheless, this image of “filial daughter” has since developed into a cultural landscape where the diplomats will observe such folkways, and it was the Ming dynasty which had passed on these moral values to the Chosun Dynasty.



In Shih Shou-Chien, Liao Zhao-heng eds. Shaping the Cultural Images of East Asia (Taipei, Asian Culture Co., Ltd, 2011), pp. 507-537.




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