2009年1月25日 星期日

瀟湘八景──地方經驗.文化記憶.無何有之鄉

「瀟湘」以湖南為基本指涉範圍,騷人墨客在湖南的地方經驗創生了「瀟湘」主題的文學與文化。北宋時期,「瀟湘八景」山水畫開始流行,根據沈括的《夢溪筆談》,「瀟湘八景」是:「平沙雁落」、「遠浦帆歸」、「山市晴嵐」、「江天暮雪」、「洞庭秋月」、「瀟湘夜雨」、「煙寺晚鐘」以及「漁村落照」。

「瀟湘八景」本屬繪畫題材,《夢溪筆談》中並未記載其中各景的確實地理位置,因此後人經常憑藉著「瀟湘」文化傳統所凝聚的文化記憶探索猜測。
本文從作者個人追尋「瀟湘八景」,實地考察的經驗出發,反思北宋以來對於「瀟湘八景」所製造的文化記憶,並以明代畫家董其昌為例,析論「地方經驗」與「文化記憶」的相互關係。

作者認為:「瀟湘八景」未必即實存的人間特定地點,而是彷若《莊子.逍遙遊》所形容的「無何有之鄉」。

《東華人文學報》第9期(2006年7月),頁111-134。


Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang: Local Experience, Culture Memory and Wonderland


“Xiao-Xiang” means Hunan area. The poets created Xiao-Xiang culture and literature from their experience in Hunan. There were “Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang”paintings since Northern Song. According to Shen Gua’s Mengqi bitan, the titles of its scenes are: Geese Descending to Level Sand, Sails Returning from a Distant Shore, Mountain Market, Clearing Mist, River and Sky, Evening Snow, Autumn Moon over Dongting, Night Rain on Xiao-Xiang, Evening Bell from a Mist-Shrouded Temple, and Fishing Village in the Evening Glow.

As the title of landscape painting, we don’t know the correct place of “Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang”. People survey the locations of “Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang” by their culture memory about “Xiao-Xiang” culture tradition.

This paper discusses the relationship between local experience and culture memory. The author suppose “Eight Views of Xiao-Xiang” to the wonderland in Zhuang-zi’s “Xiao-iau Yu”.

Dong Hwa Journal of Humanities, No.9 ( July 2006), pp.111-134.

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