2009年1月25日 星期日

江山如畫與畫裡江山:宋元題「瀟湘」山水畫詩之比較

在「瀟湘」山水題畫詩的發展過程中,元代處於思想與情感轉型的關鍵地位,本文經由比較宋代與元代的「瀟湘」山水題畫詩,體察其間觀看視域、寫作型態以及抒情表現的變化情形,分別從地方八景(十景)的出現、八景(十景)的圖象形式、「抒情」與「寫景」的相互關係、「視山水為圖象」的「江山如畫」,與「觀圖象如真山水」的「畫裡江山」兩種心態,顯示宋人「情景交融」與元人「以景代情」的書寫傾向。

作者對照了宋元人題寫「瀟湘八景圖」中「漁村夕照」和「瀟湘夜雨」的詩作內容,發現宋人重視「情景交融」,將個人主觀的情思投射於畫中景物,山水往往帶有「我」之意識,運用「瀟湘」文學與文化典故時,也能與詩人所欲傳達的情感相呼應。元人則傾向「以景代情」,喜以客觀的、疏離的態度白描畫上景致,將個人置於歷史的脈絡中思考,故而富有鮮明的時間感與普遍性。

「江山如畫」和「畫裡江山」這兩組語詞正好分別於宋代及元代出現,具有時代的意義,前者顯示宋人「以我觀物」,江山帶有人文化的傾向,繪畫本即人為的產物,更寓有一己之私情;後者則是「以物觀物」,結合元人循理務實的思想和「發乎情,止乎禮義」的觀念,表達出蘊含歷史思維的公眾共同情感。

《中國文哲研究集刊》第23期(2003年9月) ,頁33-70。

“Landscape like a Picture” and “Landscape in the Picture”:A Comparison of Poems on the Song and Yuan “Xiaoxiang”

In the development of the poems on the Xiaoxiang landscape paintings, the Yuan Dynasty is a pivotal period for the transitions of thought and feeling in this genre. Accordingly, this article compares examples from the Song and Yuan Dynasties in order to observe changes in the visual horizons, patterns of composition, and lyrical expressions. By doing so, we can note the patterns of images in the local “eight (or ten) views;” the interrelation of “lyricizing” and “landscape descriptions;” as well as the two alternative positions of, “seeing landscapes as pictures” - which pertains to “landscape like a picture,” and “taking paintings to be real landscapes” - which pertains to “landscape in the picture.” As a result, we can see the change in inclination from a “blending of feelings and scenes” of the Song writers, to “replacing feelings with settings” in the Yuan.

The author contrasts the contents of the Song and Yuan colophons to two of the Eight Views of Xiaoxiang, the Yucun xizhao (Sunset in a Fishing Village) and the Xiaoxiang yeyu (A Rainy Night in Xiaoxiang). It can be seen that the Song writers emphasize a “blending of feelings and settings,” which means for the writer to project his subjective emotions on the scenery in the paintings, making the landscape convey his consciousness. And in addition, the literary and cultural allusions of the Xiaoxiang verses echo the feelings that the Song poets wish to convey. In contrast, “replacing feelings with settings” is preferred by the Yuan writers, who tend to depict scenery from an objective and alienated viewpoint. They reflect on an individual by positing him/her in a historical context, which helps to explain the keen sense of time and universality in their works.

These two divergent expressions of “landscape like a picture” in the Song and “landscape in the picture” in the Yuan correspond to broader tendencies in these historical periods. The former expression indicates that the Song writers “perceive things subjectively” and make the landscape bear this tendency of humanization, since the painting is, as it were, an artificial product which contains personal feelings. As for the latter, the Yuan writers “perceive things objectively” and combine their rational and practical thoughts, together with the idea of the “emotion-originated yet courtesy-restricted [feelings],” to express their public common feelings embodied in historical thinking.


Bulletin of the Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, No.23 (Sep. 2003), pp. 33-70.

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